[Devel] Re: [PATCH -RSS] Add documentation for the RSS controller

Pavel Emelianov xemul at openvz.org
Tue Jun 5 03:35:40 EDT 2007


Balbir Singh wrote:
> Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir at linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> ---
> 
>  Documentation/controller/rss.txt |  165 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 165 insertions(+)
> 
> diff -puN /dev/null Documentation/controller/rss.txt
> --- /dev/null	2007-06-01 20:42:04.000000000 +0530
> +++ linux-2.6.22-rc2-mm1-balbir/Documentation/controller/rss.txt	2007-06-04 23:18:37.000000000 +0530
> @@ -0,0 +1,165 @@
> +RSS (Resident Set Size) controller
> +
> +1. History
> +
> +The RSS controller has a long history. A request for comments for the memory
> +controller was posted by Balbir Singh [1]. At the time the RFC was posted
> +there were several implementations for memory control, the goal of the
> +RFC was to build consensus and agreement for the minimal features required
> +for memory control. The first RSS controller was posted by Balbir Singh[2]
> +in Feb 2007. Pavel Emelianov [3][4][5] has since posted three versions of the
> +RSS controller. The latest version works on top of v10 of the containers
> +patches [6].
> +
> +2. Memory Control
> +
> +Memory is a unique resource in the sense that it is present in a limited
> +amount. If a task requires a lot of CPU processing, the task can spread
> +its processing over a period of hours, days, months or years, but with
> +memory, the same physical memory needs to be reused to accomplish the task.
> +
> +The memory controller implementation has been divided into phases, these
> +are
> +
> +1. RSS controller
> +2. Page Cache controller
> +3. mlock(2) controller
> +4. Kernel user memory accounting and slab control

I would add the user-mappings-length controller

> +The RSS controller is the first controller developed, the page cache controller
> +is under development [7].
> +
> +2.1. Design
> +
> +The core of the design is a counter called the res_counter. The res_counter
> +tracks the current RSS usage and limit of the group of processes associated
> +with the controller. A res_counter is embedded in the mm_struct of a process

res_counter is not embedded into mm_structs :\

> +and within the container that groups processes together. Each container
> +has a RSS specific data structure (rss_container) associated with it.
> +
> +2.2. Accounting
> +
> +		+--------------------+
> +		|  container         |
> +		|  (res_counter)     |
> +		+--------------------+
> +		 /                   \
> +		/                     \
> +           +---------------+           +---------------+
> +           | mm_struct     |	....   | mm_struct     |
> +           | (res_counter) |           | (res_counter) |
> +           +---------------+           +---------------+
> +
> +             (Figure 1: Hierarchy of Accounting)
> +
> +
> +Figure 1 shows two important aspects of the controller
> +
> +1. Accounting happens per mm_struct (per process)
> +2. The accounting information of each mm_struct is accumulated in the container.
> +
> +(2) is required so that when a task migrates from container A to container B,
> +the accounting of the task is known accurately and the charges can be
> +carried over (*not done currently*) if desired.
> +
> +The accounting is done currently in two phases. In the first phase
> +container_rss_prepare() is invoked to setup the necessary data structures
> +and check if the container that is being charged is over its limit. If
> +it is then reclaim is invoked on the container. More details can be found
> +in the reclaim section of this document. If everything goes well, a page
> +meta-data-structure called page_container is allocated and associated
> +with the page.
> +
> +In the second phase, container_rss_add is invoked from page_add_*_rmap().
> +This routine adds the page to the per container LRU.
> +
> +2.3 Shared Page Accounting
> +
> +Shared pages are accounted on the basis of the first touch approach. The
> +container that first touches a page is accounted for the page. The principle
> +behind this approach is that a container that aggressively uses a shared
> +page, will eventually get charged for it (once it is uncharged from
> +the container that brought it in -- this will happen on memory pressure).
> +
> +2.4 Reclaim
> +
> +Each container maintains a per container LRU that consists of an active
> +and inactive list. When a container goes over its limit, we first try
> +and reclaim memory from the container so as to make space for the new
> +pages that the container has touched. If the reclaim is unsuccessful,
> +an OOM routine is invoked to select and kill the bulkiest task in the
> +container.
> +
> +The reclaim algorithm has not been modified for containers, except that
> +pages that are selected for reclaiming come from the per container LRU
> +list (through isolate_pages_in_container())
> +
> +3. User Interface
> +
> +(From Pavel's posting)
> +
> +1. Prepare the containers
> +# mkdir -p /containers/rss
> +# mount -t container none /containers/rss -o rss
> +
> +2. Make the new group and move bash into it
> +# mkdir /containers/rss/0
> +# echo $$ >  /containers/rss/0/tasks
> +
> +Since now we're in the 0 container.
> +We can alter the RSS limit
> +# echo -n 6000 > /containers/rss/0/rss_limit
> +
> +We can check the usage
> +# cat /containers/rss/0/rss_usage 
> +25
> +
> +The rss_failcnt gives the number of times that the container limit was
> +exceeded and the rss_reclaimed gives the count of the number of times
> +reclaim was called.
> +
> +4. Testing
> +
> +Balbir posted lmbench [8] and AIM9 [9] results for the RSS v2[4] patches.
> +Apart from that v2 has been tested with several applications for the OLS
> +paper on memory control. These applications include web servers and database
> +servers. RSS v2 has also been tested on the PPC64, x86_64 and UML platforms.
> +
> +4.1 Troubleshooting
> +
> +Sometimes a user might find that the application under a container is
> +terminated, there are several causes for this
> +
> +1. The container limit is too low (just too low to do anything useful)
> +2. The user is using anonymous memory and swap is turned off or too low
> +
> +5. TODO
> +
> +1. Test v3 on more platforms and run more tests
> +2. Add support for accounting huge pages (as a separate controller)
> +3. Improve the user interface to accept/display memory limits in KB or MB
> +   rather than pages (since page sizes can differ across platforms/machines).

The actual TODO is a bit larger :)
4. make container lists per-zone
5. make per-container scanner reclaim not-shared pages first
6. teach controller to account for shared-pages
7. start reclamation when the limit is lowered
8. (?) start reclamation in the background when the limit is 
   not yet hit but the usage is getting closer

> +
> +Summary
> +
> +Overall, the RSS controller has been a stable controller and has been
> +commented and discussed on quite extensively in the community.
> +
> +References
> +
> +1. Singh, Balbir. RFC: Memory Controller, http://lwn.net/Articles/206697/
> +2. Singh, Balbir. Memory Controller (RSS Control),
> +   http://lwn.net/Articles/222762/
> +3. Emelianov, Pavel. Resource controllers based on process containers
> +   http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/3/6/198
> +4. Emelianov, Pavel. RSS controller based on process containers (v2)
> +   http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/4/9/74
> +5. Emelianov, Pavel. RSS controller based on process containers (v3)
> +   http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/5/30/244
> +6. Menage, Paul. Containers v10, http://lwn.net/Articles/236032/
> +7. Vaidyanathan, Srinivasan, Containers: Pagecache accounting and control
> +   subsystem (v3), http://lwn.net/Articles/235534/

This (7) is excess.

> +8. Singh, Balbir. RSS controller V2 test results (lmbench),
> +   http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/5/17/232
> +9. Singh, Balbir. RSS controller V2 AIM9 results
> +   http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/5/18/1
> _
> 

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